Lothian Birth Cohorts



The Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936 are follow-up studies of the Scottish Mental Surveys of 1932 and 1947. The surveys had, respectively, tested the intelligence of almost every child born in 1921 or 1936 and attending school in Scotland in the month of June in those years. Therefore, tracing, recruiting and re-testing people who had taken part in the Surveys offered a rare opportunity to examine the distribution and causes of cognitive ageing across most of the human life course. The studies described here were initially set up to study determinants of non-pathological cognitive ageing; i.e. the ageing of cognitive functions largely in the normal range, and not principally dementia or other pathological cognitive disorders.


Please use the menu to the left to find out more about the studies.

Additionally the publication ’Cohort profile: The Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936’  in the International Journal of Epidemiology can be accessed here.


Latest News


Fast Facts at Your Fingertips


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The DMind study is highly complex. It has a compelling background. It has achieved a large number of highly noteworthy outputs for both scientific and lay audiences, has run across decades and multiple waves, and still has a huge amount of potential. Explaining all this to someone who has never heard of it before can be no mean feat. In order to make it easier to convey the scope of the study, we have developed a Fast Facts Card; a credit card-sized concertina leaflet containing study information over 12 panels, appropriate for interested scientists and lay-people.


If you would like copies of the Fast Facts Card to distribute at conferences or public engagement events, please get in touch by email: lbc1936 at ed.ac.uk


A Fast Facts PDF file is also available for download:



The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 Study featured on the BBC1 Breakfast show on 15th January 2015.


BBC1 Breakfast : Study investigates how brain deteriorates with age.


Recent News


A new study led by CCACE member Dr Thomas Bak (pictured right, with his daughter), reveals that bilingualism has a positive effect on cognition later in life. See the story on the BBC.

The study, examining 835 participants, shows that those who speak two or more languages were better on some cognitive tests than would be predicted from their performance in such tests at age 11.

A positive effect of bilingualism (including a delay in the onset of dementia) has been reported in previous studies, however it has proven difficult to determine whether people improve their cognitive functions through learning new languages or whether those with better baseline cognitive functions are more likely to become bilingual. The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 allowed the CCACE researchers to address this question for the first time. This study shows the effect of speaking more than one language is independent of age 11 cognition.


No negative effects of bilingualism were observed in any group. “These findings are of considerable relevance”, says Thomas Bak. “Millions of people around the world acquire their second language later in life. Our study shows that bilingualism, even when acquired in adulthood, may benefit the aging brain.”